As we all know, Hinduism is more than a religion. It’s a philosophy of life. Hinduism is practical and scientific at the same time. There are 4 goals of life in Hinduism. The 4 goals of Hinduism/sanatan dharma are
These are the goals of Hinduism known as purusharthas means the goal of human life. Hinduism is a very ancient culture. It is a practical approach toward life, Since we are not born perfect and all of us have to face our own suffering but we all have to make our own way to the final goal of human life. Our rishis already knew everything . They created multiple ways to reach the final state. This world is full of maya and we have to go beyond our senses to under and experience this state.
Dharma meaning righteousness or the right action. The word dharma comes from a sanskrit root “dhar’’ which means to support or to bear or to hold.
“ Dharyate anena iti dharmaha”that which support dharma, supports, nourishes, harmonises, unite the individual, the society, the nation and the world is dharma.
“Dharmo rakshati rakshitaha”Dharma protects those that protects it.
The practice of dharma ,the right action can save us from great dangers. It is a fundamental concept which make life and universe possible. The universe follow certain rules and follows certain orders which is why it is a cosmos not a chaos. ‘Human who follows this cosmic order is known as dharma’. This includes duties, rights, laws , right conduct, virtues, the right way of life. This all concept of Hinduism is came from vedas.
There are cosmic principles by which the gods create and maintain the order from disorder, cosmos from chaos, stability from instability. Law that links cause and affect. It is also link with humans to each other and to other forms of life. In the Upanishads, the concept of dharma continues as universal principle of law, order, harmony, truth/Satya.it is act the regulatory moral priciple of universe.
“Param dharma”Path of righteousness/right way of living. This principle remains constant. This change does not participate in any change. It is a right way of living a life.
It includes the idea of duty, rights, characters, vocation, religion, customs and every behaviour that is correct to all the levels of our life in nature, society, family and individually. Dharma have four legs “Satya, Daya, shanti, and ahimsa” – truth, compassion, tranquility and non violence.
The great psychologist Maharshi Patanjali says that dharma is a part of yoga. No one can be a yogi without practicing the basic components of dharma that is yamas and niyamas.
The first need when living in this world is the satisfaction of our materialistic needs. In ancient times, everyone used to have some assets that they could use that bartered in exchange for their basic needs like food, shelter, cloths etc. in the present time we need money to fulfill our basic requirements. This is Artha . It is recognised as one of the goals in Hinduism. Acquiring money as it is necessary for a comfortable life int he world. The best earning is the self earning and second is what parents left behind.
Artha and Kama is related as it is the need for the embodied human being to find satisfaction in this word. We know our end goal is to get liberation but the journey also counts. The fact is that the journey through this world, which is very real to us in this state of consciousness. Journey is to deepens our desire for liberation and it is the part of it.
After fulfilling the aspects of Artha one must fulfil the next goal that is “Kama”- desire for pleasure.
This pleasure can be many types including sexual pleasure. Hinduism text have healthy views on sexual pleasure. The sexual drive is very essential for the progression of species and it is not considered bad. With the right knowledge of dharma one can automatically lead to the moksha itself. This is why Hinduism is known as the way of life more than just a religion. Artha and Kama is holds in dharma on one side and moksha on the other. Living a life in this word of senses is very tricky business. Our senses and egos are always there out to lead us into the tricky situations.
Moksha is the final goal of Hinduism to attain liberation/moksha from the eternal cycle of birth and death. Hinduism is the practical religion tells us how live the balanced life realising our temporary goals which needs during this life on this earth.
When Artha and Kama is followed through the dharma/righteousness, the fourth goal that is moksha becomes easy. Moksha is not something to be hoped after death but it can be achieved and enjoyed while living in this world. These goals enrich our experience of life.
“ So these are The 4 goals of Hinduism/sanatan dharma. The 4 goals of life, the 4 stages of life (Ashramas) and 4 varnas (classification) are somehow connected with each other and these combination form the base/fabric of Hindu life.”